Glossary - E

E. coli

The full name of this rod- shaped bacteria is Escherichia coli, and it is found commonly in the lower intestine of humans. The harmless strains of this bacteria are normal residents of the gut, although some serious strains can cause food poisoning, diarrhoea and meningitis.

Eczema

Eczema is a type of dermatitis (inflammation of the upper layers of the skin.) The symptoms of eczema include itching, scaling, dryness and redness of the skin.  Eczema has been linked to food allergies and dysbiosis.

Endogenous

The term 'endogenous' means to originate or develop internally within an organism, tissue or cell. Endogenous bacteria are those which reside within a closed system such as bacterial gut flora which live in the gastro-intestinal tract.

Enteric Nervous System

A subdivision of the autonomic nervous system, the enteric nervous system is responsible for innervating and controlling the gastrointestinal tract and digestive processes. Also known as the intrinsic nervous system, it has been described as the 'second brain' and can function autonomously, although it does require communication with the central nerovus system to function effectively.

Enterococcus faecium

E. faecium is a bacterial species believed to have probiotic properties by some. However, strains of this species have also exhibited pathogenic tendencies and research also suggests that certain strains may carry vancomycin resistant genes. We do not carry this species of bacteria in our supplement range and will not do so until further research is done. Read about Probiotics for IBS here.

Enterotype

The word 'enterotype' refers to a category of bacterial organisms, based on the balance of various kinds of bacteria in the human microbiome. A study published in Nature¹ in April 2011 announced the discovery of three human enterotypes; defined by the bacterial family which dominates within the group, whether that be Ruminococcus, Bacteroides, or Prevotella bacteria.

Further research published in September 2011² has now suggested that one's dietary habits may affect one's enterotype.

References:

1. Arumugam, Manimozhiyan, Raes, Joroen, et al. (April 2011). Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome. Nature. doi: 10.1038/nature09944.

2. Wu, G.D., Chen, J., Hoffman, K., Bittinger, Y, Chen, Y., et al Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes' Science. doi: 10.1126/science.1208344

Epithelium

Lining most internal and external surfaces of an animal’s body, this type of tissue consists of one or more layers of tightly packed cells. It encloses and protects parts of the body including the organs.

Esophagus

American spelling for Oesophagus.

Eukaryotic cell

These are cells that contain a nucleus which contains DNA bound together into chromosomes. These types of cells also contain organelles that have specific functions within the cell. The organelles sometimes have a membrane, and sometimes don’t. Different eukaryotic cells contain different organelles depending on the type, function, and location of that particular cell.