Glossary - L

Lacidofil

'Lacidofil' is a probiotic blend of two well-researched strains from the Institut Rosell; Lactobacillus acidophilus Rosell-52 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus Rosell-11. The two strains together have been researched and praised for a few various health applications, including; antibiotic-associated diarrhoeaH. pylori eradication, acute gastroenteritis in children and digestive health support.

Lactic acid

Lactic acid is a metabolic intermediate involved in many biochemical processes. It is also the end product of glycolysis which is a metabolic process in which glucose is eventually broken down into lactic acid molecules. Lactic acid bacteria, or LAB, are a group of gram-positive bacteria that ferment sugars into lactic acid. This acidity both inhibits the growth of competing or pathogenic bacteria, as well as allowing them to withstand the increased acidity from organic acid production. Therefore, these particular bacteria are used a lot in the food industry.

Lactobacilli / Lactobacillus

The probiotic species 'casei' belongs to the Lactobacillus genus; like acidophilus or rhamnosus. Lactobacillus casei is a probiotic species widely found in dairy products such as yoghurt and cheese. As always, one should look at a probiotic strain and not simply the species; an example of a strain of Lactobacillus casei is Lactobacillus casei Rosell-215.

Healthcare professionals can find out more about Lactobacillus on the Probiotics Database. 

Lactobacillus casei

The probiotic species 'casei' belongs to the Lactobacillus genus; like acidophilus or rhamnosus. Lactobacillus casei is a probiotic species widely found in dairy products such as yoghurt and cheese. As always, one should look at a probiotic strain and not simply the species; an example of a strain of Lactobacillus casei is Lactobacillus casei Rosell-215.

Healthcare professionals can find out more about Lactobacillus casei in the Probiotics Database.

Lactobacillus paracasei

Lactobacillus paracasei is a species of probiotic that belongs to the Lactobacilli genusLactobacillus paracasei will naturally reside in the small intestine and different strains of L. paracasei will have different properties. For example, L. paracasei Lpc-37 has shown particular strength in inhibiting pathogens such as Salmonella typhimuriumStaphylococcus aureusEscheria coli and Listeria monocytogenesL. paracasei Lpc-37 has shown to stimulate a specific immune response of the cell wall lining of the gut known to ward off viruses and support anti-allergy responses.

Healthcare professionals can find out more about Lactobacillus paracasei in the Probiotics Database.

Lactobacillus plantarum

A versatile member of the Lactobacillus family of bacteria, this probiotic species is commonly found in fermented foods such as sauerkraut, and was first isolated from saliva. It is a natural resident of the human gastrointestinal tract.

This species has been connected to IBS (although we would always stress the importance of strain-specificity) - in that a certain strain of Lactobacillus plantarum has been well researched in IBS sufferers.   Other strains of the plantarum species have been researched in other groups of people, for example the strains CECT 7527, CECT 7528 and CECT 7529 have been tested and shown to help maintain healthy cholesterol levels.

Healthcare professionals can find out more about Lactobacillus plantarum in the Probiotics Database.

Lactobacillus reuteri

(Pronounced roy - ter – ee) This species of probiotic occurs naturally in the digestive system of many people. There are a few strains within the Lactobacillus reuteri species which have been shown in clinical trials to be beneficial for certain health conditions. For example, some strains of L. reuteri have been used in clinical trials looking at oral health, and colic in babies. The strain L. reuteri RC-14® is one of the most well researched strains in the Lactobacillus reuteri family, with 26 clinical trials in combination with L. rhamnosus GR-1® for symptoms of cystitisvaginal thrush and BV.

Healthcare professionals can find out more about Lactobacillus reuteri in the Probiotics Database.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a naturally occurring probiotic species of the intestinal and vaginal microbiota. It is thought to reside primarily in the small intestine with similar species such as acidophilus. One specific strain of rhamnosus is Lactobacillus rhamnosus Rosell-11, which has shown strong capability to adhere to intestinal cell linings.

Another well researched strain is Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1®, which has been extensively trialled in the area of women's intimate health.

Healthcare professionals can find out more about Lactobacillus rhamnosus in the Probiotics Database.

Lactococcus lactis

Lactococcus lactis is a probiotic species of bacteria that has been used for many years in the meat industry thanks to its ability to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic bacteria which degrades meat. Rosell 1058 is a specific strain of Lactococcus lactis which has been isolated from a kefir culture. It is both β-galactosidase positive and a-glucosidase positive.

LDL

LDL, or low-density lipoprotein, is a lipoprotein that carries cholesterol around the body. As cholesterol is a fatty substance and cannot dissolve in the blood, it requires a carrier to transport it around the body. LDL particles tend to be less dense than other lipoproteins and as a result are also known as 'bad cholesterol' due to their ability to deposit fat molecules in cells walls. This then attracts white blood cells, which can cause a build-up, leading to blocked arteries (atherosclerosis). 

Leaky gut syndrome

This is a term which is used to describe increased intestinal permeability in the lining of the digestive system. Leaky gut syndrome is a condition where the lining of the digestive system is impaired and damaged and therefore lets substance such as microbes, undigested food and toxins leak through the gut wall. This condition can impact negatively on digestion and is also thought to play a role in the development of certain autoimmune conditions. Although leaky gut syndrome is not completely understood, it is thought that factors such as stress, alcohol consumption, dysbiosis and the overuse of certain pharmaceuticals may play a role.

Healthcare professionals can find out more about leaky gut on our sister site, Probiotic Professionals. 

Lipids

Lipids are substances such as fat, oil, and wax which can be dissolved in alcohol but not water. Lipids are an important part of the living cell as they serve as fuel for the cell, as well as being an important part of the cell structure.

Live cultures

Often used interchangeably with the term probiotics, live cultures refer to beneficial microorganisms which are commonly found in foods such as yogurt. Due to new European legislation, 'live cultures' may replace the term probiotic to describe friendly bacteria such as Lactobacillus acidophilus.

Lumen

In biology, a lumen refers to the space inside of a tubular structure such as the oesophagus, arteries, veins or intestines.

Lyophilisation

Lyophilisation is a safe, sophisticated stabilisation technique, also known as freeze drying, which preserves cell structures without harming them. The process is used for materials such as; food, blood, human tissue, pharmaceuticals or, in our case, probiotics.